- The Shah waged “the White Revolution” which was aimed at redistribution of large estates to tenant farmers.
- Dr. Ali Amini was appointed as Prime Minister and Hassan Arsanjani as Minister of Agriculture.
- Although landlords were unhappy with the redistribution of their land holdings, they accepted that some measures of land reform was inevitable.
- The ulama, some of whom also landowners, bitterly opposed the reforms. An unknown cleric, Ruhollah Khomeini condemned the reforms as unconstitutional and un-Islamic.
- The Shah labeled the feudal and clerical opposition against the reforms as “black reaction.”
- Arsanjani forced landlords more in order to make the reforms more achievable.
- Discontent of the feudals increased, and it caused a clash between the Shah and Amini.
- Student protests on the Tehran University was dispersed violently. The Shah accused them of allying themselves with “black reaction.”
- Yet, Amini lost his progressive reformist image, cut the military budget, and hoped for US aid to cover the budget deficit.
- Amini was forced to resign after he confronted himself with the Shah and the military and after failed to get the US aid.
- Jalal Ale Ahmad published his book “Occidentosis: A Plague from the West.”
- The Shah launched “the White Revolution” by himself, composed of 6 principles:
- land reform
- nationalization of the forests
- profit-sharing for industrial workers
- sale of state factories
- votes for women
- foundation of Literacy Corps
- Ayatollah Khomeini was arrested after his speech against the White Revolution.
- Hasan Ali Mansur was appointed as Prime Minister. His party, The New Iran Party was regarded as a US creation.
- The US State Department was seeking diplomatic immunity from prosecution for all American personnel, diplomatic or otherwise.
- The US wanted this agreement informally ratified by Iranian Foreign Ministry, but Mansur sent the matter to the Majlis.
- 60 out of 130 deputees opposed the government, Khomeni condemned the ratification and was exiled by the Shah.
- Mansur was assassinated by a member of Fedayan-i Islam. The Shah appointed Amir Abbas Hoveida as Prime Minister.
- People’s Mujahedin, an Islamic Marxist organization, was founded by leftist students.
- Oil revenues maximized and Iranian economy grew apace.
- Censorship on books. Many mosques and libraries were raided by the police.
- The Shah signed an economic agreement with the USSR: Iran to supply nat’l gas to Russia, Russia to give industrial aid to Iran.
- Bijan Jazani began to reorganize People’s Fadayan, a Marxist-Leninist organization, after released from prison.
- A new law passed favoring women. According to the law;
- women have the right to apply for divorce without husband’s permission
- a man had to secure his wife’s consent before taking a second wife
- legal matters involving families are transferred from religious to secular courts
- The USSR agreed to supply light armaments in return for more nat’l gas.
- Khomeini sent an open letter to Hoveida mentioning “the bankrupcy of the bazaar and its respected merchants.”
- The Shah announced that Britain would no longer hold permanent military forces “East of Suez.”
- Bijan Jazani was captured by SAVAK, sentenced life in prison by the military court, sentence reduced to 15 years in prison.
- Iran cut diplomatic ties with Lebanon for helping Iranian dissidents abroad.
- Urban guerilla activities increased: Siakal Uprising led by People’s Fedayan, attack on Shah’s nephew.
- Iranian troops were sent to suppress the Dhofar rebellion in Oman.
(further data will be added)