Gause Chapter 2 Outline

Emergence of the Gulf Regional System 1971-1978

1953: Iranian coup of Muhammad Mossadegh (16)

1958: Iraqi coup of Hashemite monarchy (16)

1960: Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and Venezuela form OPEC (27)

1967:

  • British protected Federation of South Arabia collapses and becomes People’s Republic of South Yemen (18)
  • British leave base at Aden (18)

1968:

  • Britain ends military presence in Gulf Region (16)
    • Opens up Persian Gulf as area of regional contestation
    • Ba’thist coup in Iraq (20)
      • Brings Ahmad Hussan al-Bakr and Saddam Hussein to power
      • Iran and Saudi Arabia mend relations (21)
        • Iran gives up claim to Bahrain

1969:

  • Dispute between Iran and Iraq over Shatt al-Arab waterway (18)
  • Nixon administration forms American policy in the Gulf (21)
    • Looks to regional allies, namely Iran and Saudi Arabia (a.k.a. the “twin pillars”)
    • Iran publically suggest Bahrain to make own decision on independence (22)
    • Quadaffi takes control of Libya (26)
    • Marxist victory in South Yemen (35)
    • Government in Aden encourages leftists elements to take control of Dhufari movement in Oman (35)
      • Dhufari adopts name Popular Front for the Liberation of Oman (PFLO)

1970-1974: Dramatic increase in oil prices (16)

  • Nationalization of oil by OPEC countries (27)
  • Revenue for Gulf OPEC triple and quadruple (27)
  • “Oil Weapon” embargos and production cuts in 1973 sends market in panic (29)
  • Oil prices quadruple in 1973-1974 causing oil crisis (30)

1970:

  • Iran gives support to Kurdish uprisings against the Ba’thist government in Iraq (20)
    • Iraq ousts Iranian ambassador and embassies
    • Britain deposes of Sultan Sa’id of Oman and replaces him with his son, Qabas (24)
    • Libya challenges Occidental Oil Co. (29)
    • Iraqi government offers Bazarini and the Kurds autonomy agreement (35)
    • PFLO controls most of Dhufar but then takes on Omany forces with help of Britain, Jordan, and Iran (36)

1971:

  • Formal end of British protectorate status of Gulf States (16)
    • Most Stable Period in Gulf History (16)
    • Nixon administration finalizes “twin pillars” policy (21)
      • Iran supported politically and sold weapons to act as American proxy in the region
      • Saudi Arabia sold weapons as junior partner in security issues
      • Premised to avoid American responsibility for security issues in the region (22)
      • Iran and Saudi Arabia as “pro-Western alliance”
      • Iranian dispute over Abu Musa, Greater Tunb, and Lesser Tunb islands (23)
        • Iran sends troops to islands
        • Diplomatic ties with Iraq broken over dispute (24)
        • Smaller Gulf states gain independence (24)
          • Bahrain, Qatar, Oman, UAE

1972:

  • Iraq and Soviet Union sign 15 year treaty of friendship and cooperation (24)
    • Attempt to balance American support of Iran and Saudi Arabia
    • Iraqi nationalization of oil (35)
    • Fighting resumes in Iraqi Kurdistan (35)
      • US supports Kurdish insurgency

1973:

  • Egypt and Syria launch surprise attack on Israeli forces in Sinai Peninsula  and Golan Heights (28)
  • Gulf Arab ministers deploy “Oil Weapon” in Arab-Israeli conflict (29)
    • 5% cut on oil production every month until Israel withdraws from areas occupied in 1967 war (29)
    • Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and UAE impose embargo on oil to the United States (29)
    • Iran and US agree to joint economic commission (32)
    • Iraq occupies Kuwait border post but withdraw after pressure from Arab League (36)

1974:

  • Saudi Arabia formally recognizes UAE (25)
  • Saudi Arabia lifts embargo on US oil after America commits to disengagement agreement between Israel and Syria (32)
  • Kurdish areas rise in full rebellion against Iraqi government with open support of Iran and covert support from the US and Israel (35)

1975:

  • Iraq seeks better relations with Iran and Saudi Arabia (17)
  • Qabus announces that PFLO rebellion has been squashed in Oman (36)
  • Algiers Agreement: Iran and Iraq solve dispute over Shatt al-Arab waterway (36)
    • Iraq recognizes Iranian claim over half of river
    • Iran agrees to turn over disputed territory to Iraq and end support for Kurdish rebellion
    • Agreement signed at OPEC meeting in Algiers (37)
    • Mass exodus of Kurds into Iran from Iraq due to loss of rebellion support (37)
    • Iraq and Saudi Arabia agree to split “neutral zone” carved out by British (38)

1976:

  • Iraq ends support for PFLO rebellion in Oman (38)
  • King Khalid of Saudi Arabia is first king to visit smaller gulf states (39)
  • First OPEC “split” on oil prices (39)
  • Kuwait signs arms deal with Soviet Union (40)

1977:

  • Iraq and Kuwait agree to mutual border withdrawal (38)
    • Kuwait opens border with Iraq, closed since 1972
    • Iran shifts from price hawk to price moderate due to American pressure (40)
    • Anwar Sadat visits Jerusalem, breaking Saudi-Egyption-Syrian triangle (41)

1978:

  • Ba’thist government expels Ayatollah Khomeini (41)
  • Iran, Iraq, and Saudi Arabia attempt negotiations to ensure security issues but fails (41)
  • Camp David accords between Egypt and Israel (41)

1979:

  • Collapse of Shah’s regime in Iran (17)
  • Iranian troops leave Oman (40)
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1 Comment

Filed under Gregory Gause

One response to “Gause Chapter 2 Outline

  1. The bullet points are a little messed up because they didn’t copy correctly into the blog, so some things are listed in a confusing manner. I will try to fix this in the near future.

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